Accueil > François Picard > Musical notation and visualization of sound

Musical notation and visualization of sound

par François Picard

Musical notation and visualization of sound, from Charles Seeger to the Sorbonne Ethnomusicology Seminar through Rouget

Sonograms, staff notations or notation of fingerings, whenever possible, it is therefore necessary to synchronize them with the sound recording itself. This makes it possible to better locate the visualizations that are not synchronous, such as the histograms of the occurrences of the notes.

The synchronization (see below Julien Debove, François Picard "A protocol of sound visualization") allows today to make accessible audio-visual documents which Seeger dreamed.

A protocol of sound visualization

We want to have a synchronized sound with an image (fixed or scrolling) synchronized with a cursor and all that is compacted into a file in a video format readable on any machine.

PDF - 74.9 ko
Un protocole de visualisation du son

Julien Debove, François Picard, Department of Music and Musicology, team Patrimoines et Langages Musicaux, Paris-Sorbonne University, summer 2011

The Pathegraph (1912)

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Pathégraphe S. 5003 Solfège premier exercice "Le soupir est le silence de la noire"
Cours de solfège : nouvelle méthode perfectionnée rationnelle et progressive
Acousmographie François Picard

Since the invention of the sound recorder, we tried to synchronize the sound with writing, whether with speech or solfeggio. The Pathégraphe S. 5003 suggests a solfeggio lesson, synchronized with its notation (here in a reconstitution with the Acousmographe from INA-GRM)

writing an oral notation
MPEG4 Video - 105.1 Mo
Chao tianzi Mueller luth

In 1912 Mueller transcribed the oral notation of a tune, "Chao tianzi", performed on the lute sanxian by a street musician from Beijing.

Hornbostel paradigmatic transcription
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Chao tianzi Mueller Hornbostel

In 1919 Hornbostel publishes an analytical transcript of Mueller’s recording of a lute interpretation by a Beijing street musician of the tune "Chao tianzi". He uses the paradigmatic presentation.

Music notation Charles Seeger
PDF - 714.6 ko
François Picard, "Notation Charles Seeger"
pdf

François Picard, IreMus
Nicolas Meeùs seminar 2016
We propose here to synchronize the studied recordings with the visualizations published by Charles Seeger in 1957 and 1958.
We have also added (p.6) some quotations showing that what has been especially drawn from Charles Seeger’s article is the semiotic definition distinguishing prescriptive notation and descriptive notation, rather than the need to base analyzes and musicological descriptions on sound documents made available.

An Irish ballad, an African tune, an Anglo-American ballad transcribed and visualized by Charles Seeger

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An Mhaighdean Mhara
Kitty Gallagher, "An Mhaighdean Mhara" (The Mermaid Song) recorded by Alan Lomax, Central Hotel, Letterkenny (County Donegal), North-west (Ireland), 2/5/1951.
Charles Seeger, “Toward a Universal Music Sound-Writing for Musicology”, Journal of the International Folk Music Council, IX (1957), 63.
visualisation Praat selon protocole Beyhom - Miramon-Bonhoure

Kitty Gallagher, "An Mhaighdean Mhara" (The Mermaid Song) recorded by Alan Lomax, Central Hotel, Letterkenny (County Donegal), North-west (Ireland), 2/5/1951.
Charles Seeger, "Toward a Universal Music Sound-Writing for Musicology," Journal of the International Folk Music Council, IX (1957), 63.
François Picard, Praat, Acousmographe, 2016

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Abatutsi Traditional Song (Seeger)
« Abatutsi Traditional Song » enregistré et publié par Merriam, A. P. (1954). Voice of the Congo. [Tribal music of Central Africa. Riverside Records. B4 Charles Seeger, “ Prescriptive and Descriptive Music-Writing”, The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Apr., 1958), pp. 184-195

"Abatutsi Traditional Song" recorded and published by Merriam, A. P. (1954). Voice of the Congo. [Tribal music of Central Africa. Riverside Records. B4
Charles Seeger, "Prescriptive and Descriptive Music-Writing," The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Apr., 1958), pp. 184-195

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Abatutsi Traditional Song (Picard)
« Abatutsi Traditional Song » enregistré et publié par Merriam, A. P. (1954). Voice of the Congo. [Tribal music of Central Africa. Riverside Records. B4
Picard, Praat, Acousmographe

"Abatutsi Traditional Song" recorded and published by Merriam, A. P. (1954). Voice of the Congo. [Tribal music of Central Africa. Riverside Records. B4
François Picard, Praat, Acousmographe, 2016

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Abatutsi Traditional Song volume (Praat)
« Abatutsi Traditional Song » enregistré et publié par Alan P. Merriam (1954). Voice of the Congo. [Tribal music of Central Africa. Riverside Records. B4
Volume selon Charles Seeger, “ Prescriptive and Descriptive Music-Writing”, The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Apr., 1958), pp. 184-195
volume et hauteurs selon Praat

"Abatutsi Traditional Song" recorded and published by Merriam, A. P. (1954). Voice of the Congo. [Tribal music of Central Africa. Riverside Records. B4
Charles Seeger, "Prescriptive and Descriptive Music-Writing," The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Apr., 1958), pp. 184-195
François Picard, Praat, Acousmographe, 2016

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Abatutsi Traditional Song volume (Sonic visualiser)
« Abatutsi Traditional Song » enregistré et publié par Alan P. Merriam (1954). Voice of the Congo. [Tribal music of Central Africa. Riverside Records. B4
intensité selon Charles Seeger, “ Prescriptive and Descriptive Music-Writing”, The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Apr., 1958), pp. 184-195
Loudness selon Sonic Visualiser

"Abatutsi Traditional Song" recorded and published by Merriam, A. P. (1954). Voice of the Congo. [Tribal music of Central Africa. Riverside Records. B4
Charles Seeger, "Prescriptive and Descriptive Music-Writing," The Musical Quarterly, Vol. 44, No. 2 (Apr., 1958), pp. 184-195
François Picard, Sonic Visualizer, Acousmographe, 2016

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Molly Jackson "Barbara Allen"
Molly Jackson, Alan Lomax, rec. 1935
Charles Seeger
Versions and Variants of Barbara Allen from the Archive of Folk Song
Selected Reports of the Institute of Ethnomusicology,
University of California, Los Angeles, Vol. I, No.1. 1966

"Barbara Allen", by Molly Jackson, recorded by Alan Lomax 1935
Charles Seeger Selected Reports of the Institute of Ethnomusicology, 1966
François Picard, Acousmographe, 2016

James Reid, "Nasori no kyu" 1977

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Nasori no kyu
Tokyo Gakuso, « Nasori », Japan : Gagaku, Court Music of Japan, dir. art. Tadamara Ohno, 1981, VICG-5354 (1994), pl. 10
James Reid, « Transcription in a New Mode », Ethnomusicology, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Sep. 1977), p. 415-433

Tokyo Gakuso, "Nasori", Japan : Gagaku, Short Music of Japan, art. dir. Tadamara Ohno, 1981, VICG-5354 (1994), track 10
James Reid Transcript, "Transcription in a New Fashion," Ethnomusicology, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Sep. 1977), pp. 415-433.
Discussion Andreas Gutzwiller, "Stone Age and Promised Land : An Answer to James Reid," Ethnomusicology, Vol. 23, No. 1 (Jan. 1979), pp. 103-107.

Monika SEEM-PS : A collective contribution to Seminar Notation at the meeting of February 2, 2017.

PDF - 5.5 Mo
Monika SEEM-PS
contribution au séminaire Notations

Document by François Picard, Yassine Guettat, Youssef Chedid, Wang Weiping

The song of the notation for zither changxian 唱 弦 synchronized with its notation, in the interpretation of Zhang Ziqian

Zhang Ziqian changxian "Pingsha"
Zhang Ziqian changxian "Pingsha"

Zhang Ziqian 张子谦, "Pingsha luoyan" 平沙 落雁 (Geeses on the Beach), guqin zither, humming fingerings (changxian 唱 弦), notation Xu Jian 許 健, Guqin quji 古琴 曲 集 (Anthology parts for qin), vol. 2, Beijing, Renmin yinyue, 1962/19991, p. 228.
Sound source : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jPxQJ_Zjq94
Synchronization François Picard, iAnalysis, 2016
Bibliography : Dai Xiaolian 戴晓莲 : 怀念 我 的 长辈, 导师 张子谦 先生 http://www.douyishe.com//portal.php?mod=view&aid=1025

Visualization with sonogram and notation of the same passage of qin zither played by various interpreters

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Meihua qin

attached document "Meihua qin", excerpts from the play "Meihua sannong" (Three variations on the prunus flower) played at the zither qin 琴 by Liu Shaochun 劉少椿, Wu Jinglüe 吴景 略, Pu Xuezhai 溥 雪 齋 and Zha Fuxi 查 阜 西, xiao, Wei Zhongle 衛 中 樂, Zhang Ziqian 張子謙, Tsar Teh Yun 蔡德允 ; transcription of the interpretation of Pu Xuezhai 溥 雪 齊 (1960), by Xu Jian 許 健, Guqin quji 古琴 曲 集, Beijing, Renmin yinyue, 1962/1991, pp. 51-56 ; document in addition to François Picard, Marie-Hélène Bernard and Sun Koshu 孫 可 書, " La cithare chinoise qin, contextes de jeu et enregistrement ", Michèle Castellengo, Hugues Genevois (dir.), La Musique et ses instruments / Music and its instruments, Paris, Delatour France, pp. 249-260.

Balinese flute tuning
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Gambuh 9

attached document : "Gending tabuh gari", Kedisan ensemble, Bali, recording François Picard (excerpt), CD Gambuh, Balinese musical drama, by Kedisan ensemble, House of World Cultures, Inédit W 260094 (2000) track 9
flash document, realized with the Acousmographe by INA-GRM

Back to the piano-roll

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Die grine Kuzine
Abe Schwartz, pianoroll, transcription Eléonore Weill, animation François Picard

Recording of a piano roll, Acousmographe visualization, Cubase visualization, transcription by Eléonore Weill, "Jewish Piano Rolls" ou comment les rouleaux de musique juive pour player piano reflètent la vie des immigrants juifs aux Etats-Unis au tournant du XXème siècle (how the Jewish music player rolls reflect the life of Jewish immigrants in the United States at the turn of the 20th century), dissertation of Master II Research in Music and Musicology (Ethnomusicology), under the direction of François Picard, Department of Music and Musicology, University Paris-Sorbonne, October 2011 ; animation directed by François Picard

Praise to Rouget

In tribute to Gilbert Rouget, pioneer of synchronized transcription and visualization of music

PDF - 111.7 ko
Rouget, bibliographie et filmographie
photo Tran Quang Hai

the original transcription Rouget published of the song to Sakpata
Musica reservata Deux chants initiatiques pour le culte des vôdoun au Bénin (Two initiatory songs for the vôdoun worship in Benin) : recordings, photographs, layout and text by Gilbert Rouget, Institut de France, Academy of Fine Arts, session of Wednesday, October 26, 2005, Paris, Palais de l Institute, 2006

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Sakpata Rouget vue
animation Acousmographe, document Flash

and the transcription rectified by François Picard, with visualization under Praat according to the Beyhom - Miramon-Bonhoure protocol

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Sakpata Picard vue
visualisation Praat, animation Acousmographe, document Flash

A lesson of Maoist singing

"President Mao has traveled the country" (Mao zhuxi zoubian zuguo dadi 毛主席 走遍 祖国 大地) (1972)
lyrics by Liu Wenyu 刘文玉
music by Qin Yongcheng 秦咏诚
broadcasted by the Central People’s Radio, sound document by Patrice Fava, jianpu score synchronized by François Picard, iAnalysis

MPEG4 - 21.9 Mo
Mao a parcouru le pays 毛主席走遍祖国大地

For the sung version, see here

Etenraku
"Etenraku" 越 天 楽 is the most famous piece, in Japan and in the West, of the genre tōgaku 唐 楽 of music gagaku 雅 楽, a performance of which was reserved for the Royal Japanese Court until after Second World War.
Like many other pieces of tōgaku, the instrumentation is fixed, it is that of kangen :
drum with two studded skins taiko and hourglass kakko, gong shōko, mouth organ shō, oboe hichiriki, flute ryūteki, zither koto, lute biwa. Many instruments are multiplied in unison.
The traditional notation system shōga is the phonetic notation of oral notation.
We will offer various examples, synchronized with the Acousmographe.
The sound version is that, standard, of the group Ono Gagaku Kai 小野 雅 楽 会 in the recording published by Ocora C 559018 (1987).
Etenraku graphic score

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Etenraku graphic score
Chris Hiscock & Marian Metcalfe, New Music Matters 11-14, Volume 2, Heinemann educationnal Publishers, 1999, p. 52-53

Chris Hiscock & Marian Metcalfe, New Music Matters 11-14, Volume 2, Heinemann Educationnal Publishers, 1999, pp. 52-53
Etenraku shoga

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Etenraku shoga
Ono gaku kai Ocora 1987, Naoko Terauchi 2011, animation Acousmographe François Picard 2017

Etenraku basic melody

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Etenraku basic melody
Ono gaku kai Ocora 1987, Naoko Terauchi 2011, animation Acousmographe François Picard 2017

Etenraku in fashion hyojo, nokorigaku-sanben

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Etenraku in hyojo mode, nokorigaku-sanben
Ono gaku kai Ocora 1987, Naoko Terauchi 2001, animation Acousmographe François Picard 2017

Naoko Terauchi, "Surface and Deep Structure in the Togaku Ensemble of Japanese Short Music (Gagaku)," Michael Tenzer, John Roeder, eds., Analytical and Cross-Cultural Studies in World Music ; Oxford, New York ; Auckland [etc] : Oxford University Press, 2011, ch. 1, pp. 19-55.
See as well :
Willem Adriaansz, The Kumiuta and Danmono Traditions of Japanese Koto Music, p. 150
A comparative score of "Etenraku" in hyojo and banshiki modes is found in
William Malm, Music Cultures of the Pacific, Near East, and Asia, Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice-Hall, 1996, p. 228.

The Vanuatu Women’s Song

Monika Stern recording, Pentecost island, Vanuatu ; Praat visualization and formal analysis visualized under iAnalysis by François Picard.

QuickTime - 5 Mo
hamalinguwe (Vanuatu) forme
analyse formelle d’un chant du Vanuatu (iAnalyse)